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DRUG OFFENCES

Overview

Defending drug offences can be very complicated because the case usually relies heavily on police witnesses, search warrants, and defences often rely on making legal arguments relying on the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Drug Offences – Possession for the Purpose of Trafficking:

Overview

Possession for the purpose of trafficking (P4P) in a scheduled substance is a common charge that carries ever increasing penalties. It is not technically a criminal offence. In Canada, possession for the purpose of trafficking is a contravention of the Controlled Drug and Substances Act (CDSA), which outlines the offences and penalties for violations. For all intents and purposes, it is prosecuted the same way as a criminal offence so this distinction might be unnecessary.

Definition

For the P4P offence to be made out, it is required that the accused have possession of the particular substance in question. In this case it is the amount of substance found that raises a presumption that the possession is for trafficking purposes, not consumption purposes. For this offence, it is very important that the substance be legitimate. For instance, possessing a large quantity of baking powder in clear baggies will not be sufficient.

As with trafficking, this offence can be subdivided by Schedule. Schedule I contains the most harmful drugs (cocaine and heroin-based substances). Schedule II is primarily marijuana but also includes hashish and derivatives. Schedules III-IV contain other controlled substances including magic mushrooms, ecstasy, and steroids. By far the most common, Schedules I and II are the types seen most often in Canadian courts.

Evidence

This offence can be investigated in a variety of ways. The police might find large quantities of drugs pursuant to an executed search warrant at the home of a suspected drug trafficker. While not caught actually distributing the substance, officers might discover drugs hidden in a safe in the suspect’s closet or in a drawer in a bedroom. The substance is seized, weighed, and ultimately tested to determine if it is in fact a scheduled substance. Sometimes this offence arises incidental to another valid investigation. For instance, police enter the home of a feuding couple and discover drugs in plain view on the coffee table.

It is common in P4P investigations for police to gather other indicators of trafficking besides the actual drugs. Items such as weighing scales, bags, debt lists, quantities of cash, plus other substances designed to dilute the substance (make more of it), or weapons might be included in the items seized to convince the court that trafficking behaviour was present.

Penalty

In law, like the trafficking offence, there is a tremendous difference in penalty depending on the Schedule in which the substance is registered. For instance, possession of cocaine for the purpose of trafficking is punished much more severely than P4P in marijuana. Even within a Schedule, penalties differ. P4P in crack cocaine will attract higher sentences than in powdered cocaine.

The reason for the different penalties is due to the particular scheduled substance’s perceived harm to society and also the typically more lucrative compensation associated with its distribution.

Obviously, the quantities in issue will determine a great extent any sentence imposed. For this offence, normally there is a rather large quantity of drugs discovered. The type of substance will dictate how much is required to attract the trafficking presumption. For instance, 10 grams of crack cocaine might lead to a P4P charge whereas a minimum of 30 grams of marijuana is required. Still, larger quantities lead to more severe penalties. Sentences for P4P can rise to the same level as trafficking but typically not quite as high.

In 2012, a series of amendments to the CDSA resulted in many mandatory minimum sentences associated with certain types of P4P (usually where the accused has a prior similar offence or the possession was accompanied by other factors like violence or weapons. These minimum sentences can be for a period of 1-2 years.

 

Defence Strategy

The most common type of defence in drug-related prosecutions is for an accused to argue that their Charter rights have been violated. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of our Constitution and police officers must respect an individual’s rights while they are investigating crime. Unfortunately, the law in Canada has shifted in recent years to a certain level of tolerance of violations of a person’s rights in favour of a pragmatic approach.

A violation of a person’s Charter rights enables that person to argue that the violation of their rights is more egregious than the drug offence for which they are charged and ask the judge to correct the injustice by excluding the evidence (typically leading to an acquittal of the accused). Acquittals are becoming increasingly rare.

Other types of defence for possession cases involves the accused introducing a doubt about whether they had knowledge and or control over the drugs found.

Drug Offences – Possession of Scheduled Substance

 

Overview

Possession of a scheduled substance is the most common charge involving drugs in Canada. Rather than carrying increasing penalties, possession is often associated with addiction and Canadian law reserves an increasing amount of compassion for the plight of addicts. Make no mistake, however, there is no “turning a blind eye” for possession and arrests remain substantial.

Possession of a drug is not technically a criminal offence. In Canada, possession of a scheduled substance is a contravention of the Controlled Drug and Substances Act (CDSA), which outlines the offences and penalties for violations. For all intents and purposes, it is prosecuted the same way as a criminal offence so this distinction might be unnecessary.

 

Definition

For the possession offence to be made out, it is required that the accused have possession of the particular substance in question. It is very important that the substance be legitimate. For instance, possessing a quantity of leafy green substance resembling marijuana but is actually oregano will not be sufficient. Similarly, the accused must have knowledge of the substance’s presence on their person or in their belongings.

As with trafficking, this offence can be subdivided by Schedule. Schedule I contains the most harmful drugs (cocaine and heroin-based substances). Schedule II is primarily marijuana but also includes hashish and derivatives. Schedules III-IV contain other controlled substances including magic mushrooms, ecstasy, and steroids. By far the most common, Schedules I and II are the types seen most often in Canadian courts.

 

Evidence

An arrest for possession of scheduled substance normally occurs within the context of another type of investigation. Any form of valid arrest gives police a certain amount of jurisdiction to search a person’s pockets and body incidental to arrest. For instance, a search of an impaired driver at the side of the road might reveal a small quantity of marijuana in the person’s pocket. In these types of cases, possession will almost invariably be made out.

This offence might also arise when officers attend a home and are given permission to search the residence by one of the occupants. It is common to find drugs in someone’s closet or in a drawer in a bedroom.

The substance is seized, weighed, and ultimately tested to determine if it is in fact a scheduled substance.

It is also common in roadside stops pursuant to the Highway Traffic Act for investigations to begin as valid driving-related investigations and for them to turn into warrantless CDSA searches. Various factors dictate whether the officer had the right to perform the search. One of the more common evidentiary factors is the officer indicates that the substance was “in plain view”, meaning it could be easily seen from outside the vehicle.

 

Penalty

In law, like the trafficking offence, there is a tremendous difference in penalty depending on the Schedule in which the substance is registered. For instance, possession of cocaine is punished much more severely than possession of marijuana. Even within a Schedule, penalties differ. Possessing even miniscule amounts of crack cocaine will attract higher sentences than powdered cocaine.

The reason for the different penalties is due to the particular scheduled substance’s perceived harm to society and is an attempt to dissuade those who might consider using a harmless activity.

Obviously, the quantities in issue will determine a great extent any sentence imposed. For this offence, normally there is a small quantity of drugs discovered. Larger discoveries usually lead to the possession for the purpose of trafficking offence. The type of substance will dictate how much is required to attract the trafficking presumption. For instance, 10 grams of crack cocaine might lead to a P4P charge whereas a minimum of 30 grams of marijuana is required. Possession of amounts under these usually leads to the simple possession charge.

Sentences for possession are the most lenient of all forms of drug offences. This is due to society’s moderate compassion for addicts. Still, it remains prohibited to possess scheduled substances without a prescription and Canada’s current drug policy seems to be focused on punishment rather than rehabilitation.

 

Defence Strategy

The most common type of defence in drug-related prosecutions is for an accused to argue that their Charter rights have been violated. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of our Constitution and police officers must respect an individual’s rights while they are investigating crime. Unfortunately, the law in Canada has shifted in recent years to a certain level of tolerance of violations of a person&339;s rights in favour of a pragmatic approach.

A violation of a person’s Charter rights enables that person to argue that the violation of their rights is more egregious than the drug offence for which they are charged and ask the judge to correct the injustice by excluding the evidence (typically leading to an acquittal of the accused). Acquittals are becoming increasingly rare.

Other types of defence for possession cases involves the accused introducing a doubt about whether they had knowledge and or control over the drugs found.

Drug Offences – Trafficking

 

Overview

Trafficking in a scheduled substance is a common charge that carries ever increasing penalties. It is not technically a criminal offence. In Canada, drug trafficking is a contravention of theControlled Drug and Substances Act (CDSA), which outlines the offences and penalties for violations. For all intents and purposes, it is prosecuted the same way as a criminal offence so this distinction might be unnecessary.

 

Definition

For the trafficking offence to be made out, it is required that the accused have sold or offered to sell the particular substance in question. Contrary to popular belief, it does not matter whether the substance was real or not. Merely holding out fake drugs for sale is sufficient.

Making understanding of this offence even more difficult is the fact that Canadian law makes it an offence to agree to make available the substance. Therefore, a verbal contract to deliver drugs would be sufficient. As a result, the exchange of money is not a prerequisite for a finding of guilt to trafficking.

There are a variety of Schedules to the CDSA. Schedule I contains the most harmful drugs (cocaine and heroin-based substances). Schedule II is primarily marijuana but also includes hashish and derivatives. Schedules III-IV contain other controlled substances including magic mushrooms, ecstasy, and steroids. By far the most common, Schedules I and II are the types seen most often in Canadian courts.

 

Evidence

This offence is normally investigated with undercover police officers posing as legitimate drug users and dealers. The police officer is often part of an elaborate sweep of traffickers, with a whole team of officers secretly taking photographs and making notes about the transaction. It is common to delay the arrest of the trafficker (even for several months) to preserve the anonymity of the undercover agent.

 

Penalty

In law, there is a tremendous difference in penalty depending on the Schedule in which the substance is registered. For instance, trafficking in cocaine is punished much more severely than trafficking in marijuana. Even within a Schedule, penalties differ. Trafficking in crack cocaine will attract higher sentences than trafficking in powdered cocaine.

The reason for the different penalties is due to the particular scheduled substance’s harm to society and also the typically more lucrative compensation associated with its distribution.

Obviously, the quantities in issue will determine a great extent any sentence imposed. A couple of grams of cocaine might yield a 90-180 day jail sentence, whereas trafficking a couple of ounces might be worth a year or more. A pound or more will almost invariably lead to a lengthy jail sentence expressed in years, not months or days.

In 2012, a series of amendments to the CDSA resulted in many mandatory minimum sentences associated with certain types of trafficking (usually where the accused has a prior similar offence or the trafficking transpired in an area where children often frequent such as schools, parks, even movie theatres).

 

Defence Strategy

The most common type of defence in drug-related prosecutions is for an accused to argue that their Charter rights have been violated. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of our Constitution and police officers must respect an individual’s rights while they are investigating crime. Unfortunately, the law in Canada has shifted in recent years to a certain level of tolerance of violations of a person’s rights in favour of a pragmatic approach.

A violation of a person’s Charter rights enables that person to argue that the violation of their rights is more egregious than the drug offence for which they are charged and ask the judge to correct the injustice by excluding the evidence (typically leading to an acquittal of the accused). Acquittals are becoming increasingly rare.

Read this if police have found drugs on you – learn about search and seizure law